Notes to Self for Future Debian Installation

It hurt my heart to see my old PC gathering dust in my parent’s closet so I decided it would be good idea to turn it into a Linux workstation because my main PC has become clunky after installing new software for work. I know very little about Linux but I enjoy a challenge and tinkering with things. Plus, running a VM with Oracle VirtualBox gets old once you actually really start working. I know I could have started with a more user friendly OS like Ubuntu but I wanted to play around with an OS I would more likely encounter in a professional space. I’m also lazy about updating software so Debian sounded right.

I read the first few sentences off the main Debian installation page and decided to try the net install. I cleared my 4GB USB from 2010 and used the portable version of Rufus to make my USB bootable.

I opened my old PC’s UEFI and made my USB the main boot device and began the installation process. It was all going well until we reached the network part. Debian could detect my devices but couldn’t make use of them since the firmware was not installed (brcm/bcm43xx-0.fw and rtl_nic/rtl8168e-2.fw). It turns out, Debian does not ship with support for non-free firm/software and I was doing a net install so I couldn’t continue with the installation until I got my internet connection setup.

After scouring around for another spare USB, I downloaded the firmware off Debian’s site, enabled the command line tools on the Mac laptop and extracted them into the USB. I later found out those last two items were probably unnecessary since we have access to a terminal during our installation. After a while of searching, I found this beautiful post perfectly outlining all the necessary steps to get Debian to find the firmware for my network adapter.

After setting up the firmware the rest of the installation was almost pain free except I received a “Debootstrap error Failed to determine the codename for the release” error after having the wizard partition my hard drive. After following the instructions from this StackOverflow thread I was able to continue with the “Install the base system” step and finish my installation.

After the installation completed, I attempted to boot into my new system. However, now I needed firmware for my graphic card (Error encountered read: ” Radeon kernel modesetting requires firmware”) so I was only able to use the tttyl terminal. Since I had provided the firmware for my network adapter during installation, I thought I could get the missing firmware with apt-get however, none of the network things that had been configured during installation were there! So there I was again, with no internet connection and the firmware I had loaded in previously was gone. I stepped through the process again mounting the same USB with the firmware files into a temporary folder in lib/firmware and moving the necessary files into lib/firmware. The missing firmware error cleared. However, I was still unable to connect to the internet.

The remaining process was actually quite backwards. My internet search led to a variety of different possible causes but as a newbie, I had trouble discerning what even applied to my case. Even though my network adapter was now being recognized, I needed to set it up as a network. After setting up the network, I was still unable to connect to the internet. I came across this article that said I need to provide my WPA password and network name. The question had previously popped into my mind: how can I log into a network that is locked behind a password? But ignored my gut feeling, believing I would get an error that would say specify the network name. After setting up my network, entering the username and password into /etc/network/interfaces and rebooting my system, I was able to connect to the internet! My routes table was no longer empty and a default gateway had been automatically entered by the system. There was no need to edit anything in my resolvd.config table as many of the threads recommended.

Finally, I could go back and continue with the package I wanted to install through apt-get. The package included firmware for my graphics card so I could use the GUI. After making some small changes to /sources.list to allow non-free package installation, I was able to install the firmware-amd-linux package. After another reboot, I was finally booted into my chosen DE and could also see the Wicd Network Manager.

In retrospect, the experience brought me to appreciate what more user friendly OS’s have done to allow computers and the internet become more accessible.

Lastly, this one is a given, but I kind of dived into this without reading any documentation. I believe the experience would have been smoother would I have at least skimmed through the Debian installation guide. In other words, the “errors” I encountered would have been expected as they are documented.

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